KACHIN HPE SAWK SAGAWN DINGLIK MARAM YU YANG. (Lamu ga Masa hte Ginru Ginsa Hkrang) ( Part-1)

KACHIN HPE SAWK SAGAWN DINGLIK MARAM YU YANG.

[ Prat dingsa Kachin ahtik labau hpe tsunlu na matu, lakap shamyet na sakse sakgan ni n lawq nga ai. Kachin ni n du shangwa shi yang, nga nga ai mabyin masa hte ginru ginsa hkratbang shangwa ai ginru ginsa masa hpe tsun yang, dai aten ni hkan e nga taw ai, byin taw ai mabyin masa ni, satlawat ni, lamuga masa ni, nga taw ai sakse sakgan ni, rauhpawng raude nga ai htingbu amyu hpanshan ni aq ginru ginsa ahtik labau ni hpe mung, tsun shalawm wara nga ai. Ndai zawn re hkan, bai la-kap shanat nna sawk sagawn gaiwang jatmaden mai nga ai. Dai majaw, lamuga masa hku nna Kachin, Myen, India hte China ni hpe mung, shalawm jatbang ra nga ai. Ndai lamuga ginra dawchyen nkau ni lawm bangwa ai majaw, ndai lamuga ginra hkan nga taw ai sakse sakgan ni, labau ni hpe tsun pruwa ra nga ai. Shingdaw dinglik maram lah ra nga ai. Kachin gasi gahkum n re ai ni mung, lawm pruwa nga ai. Dai majaw, nau n nah yu shi ai katsing galang gahkum gasi ni, yak-hkak gahkum ni (other tongues, technical terms) hpe mung alaklak rai, chyelu na matu, sanglang tawndah ngut  ra ai. Sakse sakgan grau nga ngam taw ai lamuga ajut hku, shangbang sawk kanawng lung mat wa ai gaw, sakse sakgan n lawq ai lamuga gaiwang magah hku shang ai htaq, grau damlada mai nga ai.

LAMUGA MASA HTE GINRU GINSA HKRANG

Kala Mungh aq sinprawq-dingdung (Northeast India) lamuga de na ahtik labau hte, moi chyaloi nhkoi prat ahtik labau hpe tsunlu na matu, loiyak nga ai. Grau nna, ka ngam tawn ai sakse sakgan nlung laika, magripa laika, gumhprawpa laika, kaidwi-namhtanlap laika, shanhpyi laika lahkaw ni n nga ai. Raitim bai lu tsun ai lam htaq, grau nna Surma kadit palayang kawq gaw, Dravidian asai gayau ai amyu masha ni hte Assam1  mayan hkan gaw, Miwa aq dingdaq-sinnaq (South-west China) magah hku, ginru ginsa yuq hkratwa ai Mongoloid wuhpang amyu hpanshan ni nga nga ma ai.

‘‘Assam’’ ngu ai gahkum hpe yawng aq shawng e, Indian makam masham maubung mausa labau, gashagawp laili laika (epic) ni hkan, mulu nga ai. Dainih du hkra, labaushang ngam taw ai sakse sakgan ni gaw Kamakhya Temple (Gauhati), Kechaikhati Temple (Sadiya), Mahadeva Temple (Dergaon) hte Sakta Temple (North Lakhimpur) ni, rai nga ai.  Grau nna, Kamakhya Temple hpe gaw 1505 AD kawq she, galaw ngut ai rai nga ai. Raitim, ndai Kala Hindu ni nah makam masham maubung mausa labau, gashagawp mahkrum hkrunlam ni hku, lungchya asoi nhtawm, mimoi prat dingsa ni hkan nah ahtik labau ningchyan matu ni, tam garawt shawq lah dat na, n loi nga ai. Raitim, prat dingsa htaq, ndai lahtaq kawq, tsun ai India lamuga, Kachin hte China ni gaw, hpaga yamga lam (trade road), hpara nawq buh hkawmsa (pilgrim) ai hkrunlam ni matut mahkai nga ai. Hpaga yamga lam gaw, grau nna htinglu htinglai nga

1The name “Assam” is, according to some, derived from the Sanskrit asama, which means “peerless” or “unequalled”. It has been suggested that this titlre was applied to the Shan invaders, now called Ahoms, and was transferred from them to the country that they conquered.

 

nga ma ai. Maikam lu ai npawt nhpang ahtik labau sakse langai gaw 640 AD ning htaq, hpara nawq buh hkawm ai Miwa “Hiuen Tsiang”2 wa ka tawn ai ginlam, rai nga ai. Hiue Tsiang sadu ai aten htaq, Kamarupa hkawhkam gaw Kumara Bhaskara Varman3 rai nna shanhte ni gaw Brahma makam masham (Brahmanical religion) lang ai ni re hpe, chyelu ai. Hiuen Tsiang gaw Kamarupa hkawhkam Kumar Bhaskara Varman shagah ai majaw, Magadha nah Nalanda Hpungkyi Dakkasu (Nalanda University)4  htaq “Budha Tara Mungga” (The profound law of Budha) ni hpe sa sharin hkamlah ai wa, rai nga ai. Hiuen Tsiang wa ka matsing tawn ai gamung lawnglam ni hpe Beal (Buddhist Records of the Western World, Volume-ii) htaq, bai mulu nga ai. 10th AD century htum magah hte 12th AD century lapran hkan nah gaw, magripa5 (copper plate) kawq, ka shakap

2B.C Allen, E.A. Gait, C.G.H. Allen, H.F. Howard, “Gazetteer of Bengal and North-East India”, 1993 reprinted, New Delhi, P-27.

3Varman is a Kshattriya title, but it is often assumed by aristocratic converts to Hinduism.

4Nalanda University was said to have been an architectural masterpiece. Its library, filled with Tantirc texts, was nine storeys high and served as well as a scriptorium where ancient texts were carefully copied. The curriculum covered every field of learning, from Sanskrit grammar to mathematics, and much of what today comprises Tibetan Buddhism derivers from the teachings and traditions first conceived at Nalanda. Naland University was one of the world’s first residential university, with more than 10,000 students and 2,000 teacher living in its vast thirty-acre campus, complete with dormitories, classrooms and meditation halls, Buddhist temples and carefully designed gardens and artificial lakes. It was a very old university, founded in the fifth century.

5This set of Copper-Plates was obtained by Sir Edward Gait from a cultivator in Mauza Bargaon, District Darrang, Assam, who said that it was found by his grandfather while ploughing his fields. The translation is by the late Dr. Hoernle who published a full accounts of the plates in the “Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal”, Volume-ixvii, Pt-I, 1897, P-99. Dr. Hoernle thought that this inscription was probably made in the first half of the eleventh century.

tawnwa sai lam ni hpe, mulu nga ai. singpho grupyin htaq, dandawng ai “nlung laika” langai gaw “Tezpur” kawq nga ai. Dai hpe “Tezpur nlung laika” (Tezpur rock inscription)6 ngu nga ma ai.

Assam hte Hukawk gaw lamuga masa nihtep matut nga ai. Yunnan hte Assam la-pran nah hkrumlam hpe Kachin lamuga hku laidiq laisa, rai nga ma ai. Kala hkawhkam Samuda (105 AD) aten htaq, Assam-Hukawng ginra hku nna Tagawng lahtaq mayan de dushang up matwa ai, ngu tawndah nga ai.7 G.H. Luce mung, Miwa hkawhkam prat nah “Miwa matsing ningting laili laika” (Chinese annals) ni hpe la-kap shamyet nna tsun pruwa ai kawq, Hukawng Pa e, Branhmin hkawhkam nga matwa ai, ngu tawn nga ai. Ndai lawnglam hpe hpangdaw htaq, asak kabadik sai nlungpa laika (a stone slab inscription; 416 AD) nah laika tawkka tawn ai hkrang gaw, “Dingdung Kala Laika” (North Indian Script; Fuhrer’s Inscription and GUB, I, ii, P-193) hkrang, rai nga ai.

Ahom ni n du shangwa shi ai shaloi kawq nna India Mungh Sinprawq-dingdung mayan hku gaw, shinggyim masha amyuhpan lawqlawq washanu nga ai, rai nga ai. Share shagan ai amyusha ni galup ka-up ai hku, rai nga ma ai. Ahom ni dushang matwa ai kawq nah gaw, grau nna masa galaishai matwa ai. Ndai aten htaq gaw, India lamuga jarit, Myen Mungh lamuga jarit ngu nna laksan masat tawn ai mung, req n nga ai. 19th AD tsaban magah de sheq, English wa mung shi aq British hkawseng mungdan kaba

6The full inscription was deciphered by Maha Mahopadyaya Hara Prasad Sastri in the Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 1971, P-508.

7A. Phayre, “History of Burma”, 1883, London, P-3,4, and 15.

 

Npuq kata kawq rawng taw nga ai Assam hte Myen hpe up-hkang loiwa na matu, tinang aq hkawseng mungdan kata nah lamuga jarit mi hpe masat pruwa ai. British ni bai pru matwa ai hpang, ndai lamuga jarit gaw mungkan mungdan gadagaq hte seng ai lamuga jarit (international boundary) bai gayin kahtap shabyin matwa ai. Patkai bum mayan hku, lailai sasa rai nga ma ai. Assam mayan de shangbang hkratwa ai Mongolian amyu hpanshan ni mung, ndai hku yanbang shangwa ai, rai nga ma ai. India dingdung magah de, kalu kaba tsawlaq ai, katsidik ai Himalaya hkyenbum shingyan ni gran pat taw nga ai.

Patkai Bum (nkau ni gaw “Patkoi” bum ngu nna mung, tsun nga ma ai)8 mayan gaw, Assam (Northeast India) magah de laishang loi ai chyinghka lam ahkyak langai rai nga ai. Ndai “Patkai” bum ngu ai mying gaw 1401 AD hkan, nga pru wa sai rai nga ai.9 Indo-Burma lamuga jarit nah Patkai bum mayan e, magam bungli gunlai matwa sai Surendra Nath Barua madiq madun matwa ai gaw, Mogaung (Pong)10 hkawdu (zawbwa, hkawhkam) Surunpha (Soohoonghpa) hte Assam Tipam kawq, Pong hkawdu wa ngwipyaw simsaq lam masat dingsat hpe Nangnyang hkaqnawng makau e galaw ai. Ndai lamang htaq, Surendra Nath Braua tsun ai hku nga yang, “U sat nna gasadiq lah hkat ai”, ngu tawn ai. (Pat-Kai-Cheng-Kan : Pat=Kadoi ai, Hkungga nawng ai; Kai=U; Cheng=Gasadiq; Kan=Lah ai.) Dai kawq nna

8Gait, “Report on the Census of Assam for 1891, P-280.

9 S.B. Barua, “Tribes of Indo-Burma Border” (A Socio-Cultural History of the Inhabitants of the Patkai Range), 1991, New Delhi, P-3. (Henceforth : S.B. Barua, 1991).

10R.B. Pemberton, “Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India” 1835, P-108-116.

(The Pong Chronicle was discovered by Captain R.B. Pemberton of the India Army who was sent to Manipur on intelligence work in the early 1830s.)

Patkai bum mying pru matwa ai hpe, madiq madun tawn nga ai.11 Ndai Nangnyang hkaqnawng gaw, Pangsao Hkyet (Pangsao Pass) aq dingdaq magah de (Burma kata) kilometer masum ram kawq nga nga ai. Hkaqnawng makau kawq, nlung htaq hkrang sumla tawkka dah ai gamung ni tsun hkratwa ai raitim, dainih dai labaushang nlung hpe kadai mung, n lu sagawn shi nga ma ai. S.E. Peal mung, ndai hkaqnawng de 1879 ning February htaq sadu sai. Raitim, dai labaushang nlung hpe n muhkrup nga u ai. Pangsao grup-yin hkan, nga shanu ai ni mung nlu sagawn nga ma ai.

ROKA-I12 lit-hkam galaw matwa sai Colonel James Seng Hpung (KIO) bai madiq madun tsun ai gaw, Surendra Nath Barua htaq grau hkaplah mai nga ai. Shi, bai tsun matwa ai gaw, wuloi nga sat nhtawm, jawqjau ai kawq nah byin pruwa ai hpe, tsun matwa nga ai. U hte, n mai byin ai lam hpe Sam gahkum hku nna mung, sanglang madiq madun matwa ai. Uloi hpe Sam nsen ga ni hku, “kai” mung ngu nga ma ai. Gashadawn, Manmaw (Bhamo)-Namhkam mawdawlam lapran nah “Kaihtik” mung, wuloi daruq hkat nga ai shara hpe tsun ai kawq nna Kaihtik ngu ai amying byin pruwa ai, rai nga ai. Colonel James Seng Hpung gaw, Sam rusai hpanshan rai nhtawm, dai shangwang bugah htaq kabawa ai, rai nga ai. Surendra Nath Barua gaw, Assamese rai nga ai.

Ven. Pannasara Urang Jau (Singpho Hpungkyi Jau; All India Radio – Sinhalese Nsen Shapoi Dept., New Delhi) mung, bai madiq madun matwa ai htaq, Patkai Bum amying

11- S.B. Barua., 1991, P-3.

-L. Gogoi, “The Tai Khamtis of North East India”, P-94.

12“ROKA-I” (Representative Office of Kachin Affairs – India) of Kachin Independence Organization (KIO).

 

gaw Singhpo ginru ginsa gamung nah la-kap nhtawm, paw pruwa ai amying re hpe, ajaq awaq ngangkang ai hku tsundan matwa ai. Ven. Pannasara13 Jau madiq madun sanglang matwa ai lachyum gaw, “Pat” hpe num ni naladan dan ai hpan, shakya shatsawm arung arai rai nhtawm, “Kai” gaw shanhte Hukawng hkran hte India Singpho nsen manawng hku gaw “dan ai” (nahku bawq nna naladan bang) hpe tsun maluq ai. Daimajaw, Jinghpaw num ni ndai bum shara kawq du hkratwa ai shaloi, “pat” (ga kata na pru ai) naladan hpe “kai”(dan hpang) langwa ai kawq nna ndai bum hpe “Patkai Bum” ngu, shamying tsunwa ai re lam hpe madiq madun matwa ai. Dai zawn, Dafa Bum, Dirok Bum, Jenam Bum, Patkai Bum ngu nna amying shingteng jawq matwa ai, rai nga maluq ai. Ndai bum mali ni gaw, dainih aten du hkra, shanhte Singhpo ni aq matu ahkyak nga ai zawn, dai bum ni hkan nga ai “Nat” ni hpe mung jawqjau nga ma ai. Machyiq makawq hkrum jang “Jenam Bum Nat”, lamu marang ntsin htuq jahkrat shangun mayu yang gaw “Dirok Bum Nat”, dusat du-myeng makawp maga na matu raiwa yang “Dafa Bum Nat” hpe jawqjau nhtawm, ngwipyaw simsaq ginlam matu gaw “Patkai Bum Nat” hpe jawqjau nga ma ai. Lamawa, Sam Khamti ni shamying ai amying raiwa yang, dainih dai bum hpe “Loi Patkai” (Sam hku “bum” hpe “loi”) ngu nna tsun shaga shamying taw nga na re lam, tsun sanglang pruwa ai.

Miwa Mungh htaq, Kublai Khan hkawhkam 1228 AD kawq hkawseng mungmaden gawsharawt kasaat hpangwa ai hte, Ahom ni Patkai bum mayan hku nna Assam de

13Ndai Patkai Bum gamung dupdan ai Jau Pannasara Singpho gaw Delhi University, Sri Lanka, Taiwan dakkasu ni hkan, hpaji sharin lah ai wa rai nhtawm, aga myuhpan 15 n yawm ai hku, chyetsun shaga ai hpaji ninghkring machyoi wa, rai nga ai.

 

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galeq laishang bangwa sai.14 Ahom ni laibang ai aten htaq, Patkai Bum hpe “Daikaorang” ngu nga ma ai. Shanhte shawngdaw kawq, Bodo amyuhpan ni laishang laibang hkratwa sai. Bodo amyu aga lachyum htaq, “dai” gaw “hkaqshi, hkaqnu” ngu ai, rai maluq ai. Laga lachyum hku nna “dai” gaw “bum” ngu ai lachyum mung, rawng nga maluq ai. “Kao” gaw “9” (nine) hpe lachyum shaprawq nga ma ai. Daikaorang gaw hkaqshi, hkaqnu “jahku” (9, nine)15 lwihkrat hpangw ai bum ngu ai lachyum mung, rawng nga ai.16 Ndai ginru ginsa lamlamaw (Patkai Pass) hpe sha, 1817 ning htaq Ava Myen hkawhkam hpyenla ni mung, laidiq nna Assam de shangbang kasat ma ai.17

Kachin ninggup labau htaq, tsun ai “9 lamshe” mung Daikaorang the matut nginrawn nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Kachin dumsa-jaiwa ni, si matwa ai wa aq “tsu-minla” ni hpe kaji kawoi dajuq ginra shara de shabawn ai shaloi, tsun pruwa ai “9-Lamshe” gaw, ninggup labau hpe ginru ginsa lamuga masa hte hpawn, laga ashawng ahpang ginru ginsa amyu ni nah gamung ntsa e, ginchyum shachyawq dat yang “Maliq Hkuh Majoi” (Putao-Machyangbaw Waqlawng) na sinnaq-dingdung jarit mayan ang nga ai mahtai, pru nga ai. Ndai hpe n rai na re, ngu ninghkap yang mung, laga grau ngangkang ai hpe madun na sakse sakgan tsan mat nga ai.

14S.K. Bhuyan, “Anglo-Assamese Relations”, 1947, P-2.

15(1). Chindwin-Danai hkaq de lwibang ai hkaqshi ni, (2). Loglai, (3). Nangnyang, (4). Namhpuk “Southern slope”, (5). Diyun “Dihing”, (6). Namhpuk “Northern slope”, (7). Namtichik, (8). Tirap, (9). Tisa “Disang”.

16S.N. Barua, 1991. P-3.

17– S.K. Buyan, “Anglo-Assaamese Relation”, 1974 reprinted, P-466.

-Robert Reid, “History of the Frontier Areas Bordering on Assam”, 1983 reprinted, P-192.

Patkai Bum mayan kawq, Pangsau Hkyet lailam gaw buhtawt hkratyuq laiwa sai ginru ginsa lamlamaw kaba langai rai nga ai. Grau nna gaw, “Sinprawq Himalaya bumshagawng de nah sinprawq jahtum bumlang lamuga nhkrem mayan” (The eastern slopes of the eastern Himalayas) hkrumlam ginru ginsa hkanhkrat ai amyu bawsang ni laihkrat ai, rai nga ma ai. Ndai amyu hpanshan malawng magah ni hpe “North-East India” lamuga ni htaq, malu nga ai. Nkau ni hpe gaw, Myen Mungh sinnaq chyendaw lamuga mayan ni hkan, ngachyam ai hpe mulu nga ai. Rakhine bumlang jahtum de panglai nammukdara dinpat matwa ai majaw, sinnaq hkran magah de bai gayin chyashang mat ma ai. Tsun ga nga yang, dainih nah Bangladesh – Chittagong bun mayan the India Tripura, Mizo bum ginra ni de htawt-sit shangbang matwa ma ai. “Shakma the Mru” amyu ni gaw Rekhine bumlang dingdaq jahtumh the Chittagong bum mayan ni htaq ginru ginsa hkringchyat taw nga sai amyu ni, rai nga ma ai. Shakma amyu ni gaw dingdaq jahtumh de nna kalang bai dingdung bumlang de ginru ginsa lungchya nga ai amyu ni rai nga ma ai. Indo-European (Aryan; Indo-Greek) tsun shaga aga shaga ai ni Brahmaputra palayang hkan, chyam nga taw jang, bumlang ginra ni htaq, hkring nga mat shajang ai, rai nga ma ai. Aryan tsun shaga aga lang ai amyu bawsang ni hkring nga taw sai lamuga nah sinprawq magah mayan htaq Tibeto-burma18 tsun shaga aga lang ai amyu hpanshan ni ginru ginsa shangbang nga ma sai. India lahtaq

18“Tibeto-burma” ngu ai gaw “Myen amyu, Myen aga” hpe tsun ai n re. Tsun shaga aga warumh ai aga dinghku kaba hpe tsun ai re. Ndai amying hpe tsun shaga aga hpaji (Linguistics) hku ga garan tawn ai, rai nga ma ai. Tsun shaga aga hpungtang hpaji gahkum (Linguistic Term) rai nga ai. Lamuga hku tsun ga nga yang, Tibet the Myen lamuga lapran chyambra nga ai amyu ni hpe tsun ai mung, rai nga ma ai. Ndai htaq, Myen tsun shaga aga ni mung, Tibeto- Burma tsun shaga aga dinghku kawq, lawm nga ai.

 

dingdung lamuga shara de, ginru ginsa yanbang ai ni gaw “Sinprawq Himalaya bumshagawng aq dingdaq nhkrem mayan” (the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas) hkrunlam hkanhkrat ai amyu bawsang ni, rai nga ma ai. Shanhte ni hpe Tibetan ni gaw, Lhopa (Lopa, Klopa) ngu nga ma ai. Lachyum gaw “Dingdaq masha ni” (the southerners) ngu ai, rai nga ma ai. Ndai amyu bawhpan ni gaw Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Tawang, Bomdila … ni hkan chyambra nga nga ai. Sikkim gaw Nepal hte Bhutan mungdan ni aq lapran htaq, matep rawng nga ai India nah mungdaw langai rai nhtawm, “Tawang, Bomdia” ni gaw Arunachal Pradesh kata e rawng nga ai ginra ni, rai nga ma ai. Shanhte ni gaw, India Sinnaq-dingdung mayan hku nna wunawng wuwa shangbang hkratwa ai Indo-European (Aryan) ni hte ginru ginsa hkrum katut hkat ai shaloi, shadaq daq na ginru ginsa hkring mat nga ma ai. “Indus palayang htunghkring ringchying” (Indus valley civilization) aten hkan nah ningshawng masha amyu “Dravidian” ni gaw “India dingdaq” (Sorthern India) jahtumh magah de, ginru gins aka-nawng hkratbang matwa nga ai. Hpang jahtumh, myuhpan nkau ni gaw panglai hpe laidiq nhtawm, Sri Lanka zunlawng de ginru ginsa rapshang rawng nga mat ai.

Pangsau Hkyet lahtaq de, bai sit lungwa yang “Chyaukang Hkyet”19 ginru ginsa lailam bai nga nga ai. Chyaukang

19Chyaukang Hkyet : Chyaukang Gam Mawkhkyu wa aq labau hpe Duwa Lawang Li sawk ka tawn ai “Jinghpaw Wunpawng sha ni nga yu hkrat wa ai ahtik labau laika”, 1992, Myitkyina, Manuscript, P.20 htaq mung, shingdaw dinglik hkajah mai nga ai (For comparative study). Duwa Lawang Li sawk ka ai dai laikabuk hpe, Banglore e “Chyum Hpaji” hpe “Master Degree” madang sharin nga ai “Sara Lahpai Zau Ba hte Sara Sinwa” yan, Jinghpaw Mungh de nna Delhi de atsang arang rai, htaqlah hkratwa ya ai chyeju rai nga ai. Shan-yan hpe mung, galoi raitim chyejudum nga ai hpe ndai kawq, masat mas aka shakap bang tawn nngai.

 

 

Hkyet gaw “Hkring Bum”(Kachin State) aq sinnaq magah hte “Dahpa Bum” (India) aq sinprawq-dingdaq kawq, nga ai. Ndai ginru ginsa lailam hpe Singpho (Jinghpaw, Nhpaw) ni, Arunachal Pradesh lamuga de ginru ginsa buhtawt yuq hkratwa ai shaloi, lawqlawq lang laidiq laisa, nga laiwa sai. Singph ni buhtawt chyabang hkratwa ai aten htaq, “Arunachal Pradesh”20 ngu ai amying shingteng n nga shi ai. Jinghpaw hpe India mungdan kawq, Singpho ngu nga ma ai. Lachik (Lashi), Zaiwa (Azi), Lhaovo (Maru), Rawang ni na ginru ginsa gaw North-East India lamuga de, n shangbang nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Raitim, Lisu (Lisaw) ginru ginsa gaw Singpho ni nga nga ai lamuga ni htaq, mu-mada nga ai. Ndai Lisu (num ni gaw labu shangwan buhkrawng “skirt” kaba, buhpun ai) ni gaw Putao palayang waqlawng magah de nah ginru ginsa chyashang hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. India mungdan kata kawq Singpho hpe “Wunpawng (snr) Jinghpaw Wunpawng” n ngu ai zawn, “Kachin” ngu nna mung n tsun nga ma ai. Indian masha htaq, Singpho hpe Kachin amyu re, ngu nna pyi n shaduq ai ni mung nga ma ai. Raitim, India North-East lamuga

20“Arunachal Pradesh” : Before 1912 there was neither “NEFA” nor “Arunachal Pradesh”. After subjugation of the different tracts of the North-East Frontier, the British brought them under the districts of Assam Province such as Sadiya, Lakhimpur, Darrang etc. It was only ni 1922 when the territories of present Arunachal Pradesh were brought under a separate administrative unit which was termed as the North-Eastern Frontier Tract. The tracts which it consisted were called Sadiya Tract, Lahkimpur Tract and Balipara Tract. In 1954 the Government of India took decisive step to consolidate the territory of Arunachal and put it under better administration arrangements by passing the North-Eastern Frontier Area (Administration) Regulation which designated the hitherto known North-East Frontier Tract as the North-Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA). The Government of India passed the North-Eastern Area (Reorganisation) Atc, 1972 which gives birth to the Union Territory of Arunachal on January 20, 1972 separating NEFA from Assam. It is knownas “Arunachal Pradesh”.

htaq, “Singpho hte Kachin” gaw myu bawhpan langai sha re hpe, chye ai ni lawq nga ma ai raitim, ‘Singpho’ hte ‘Wunpawng’ gaw my hpan langai hkrai re ai, ngu ai hpe nchyena ma ai. Ndai gaw, amying ningsang ni shaihkat pruwa ai majaw amyu lagaga hkrai shaduq ai mabyin langai, rai nga ai.

Chyaukang Hkyet shara kawq nna lahtaq de bai lungwa ai shaloi, Burma-India-China mungdan masum aq lamuga ni hkrum matut ai shara lawuq yang e, “Dihpuk La Hkyet (Dihpukla Pass) gaw Kachin lamuga htaq kalu tsawdik (highest) hktum ai “Hkakabu Razi Bum”21 the, nidik htum ai hkyet lailam rai nga ai. Dihpuk La Hkyet lailam gaw, Maliq Hkuh Majoi (Putao valley) shara lamuga de ginru ginsa htawtbang hkratwa ai lailam mung, rai nga ai. Dihpuk La hkyet lailam hku, laidiq matwa ai hte, pra-nga htuk manuh ai lamuga gaw Maliq Hkuh Majoi htaq wa-ang nga ai. Kachin lamuga sinprawq lahtaq jahtumh magah de, Miwa hkran magah hku nna ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratshang lailam gaw “Namni La Hkyet” (Namnila Pass) rai nga ai. Kachin sinprawq mayan htaq, Namni La Hkyet lailam gaw panglai hkaq ntsa shadawn madang e tsawdi (highest) htaq, lawm nga ai. Sanlween (Saphkung) hkaqdung ginru ginsa hkrunlam hkanhkrat nna Namni La Hkyet lailam laidiq nhtawm, Maliq Hkuh Majoi de dushang bangwa ai lailam, rai nga ai. Northeast India hte Putao Valley (Maliq Hkuh Majoi) lamuga palayang ni de, dushang bangwa ai Lisaw (Lisu) ni gaw “Namni La Hkyet” lailam ginru ginsa hku nna mung, chyashang hkratwa ai ni rai nga ma ai. Kachin lamuga dingdung jahtumh de nah ginru ginsa lailam ni

21Nung-Rawang ni gaw, “bum” hpe “razi” ngu nna shamying shaga lang hkratwa ai.

htaq, sinprawq magah gaw “Namni La Hkyet” ahkyak nga ai zawn, sinnaq magah nah “Dihpuk La Hkyet” ginru ginsa lailam mung, Kachin ginru ginsa htaq, ahkyak kaba hku nna lawm nga ai. Lamuga masa htaq shachyawq datyu yang, ndai hkyet lailam ni gaw Putao valley (Maliq Hkuh Majoi) de dantawk ginru ginsa dushang mai ai hkrumlam ni, rai nga ai.

Hukawng-Assam lailam dingsa mung “Pangsau Hkyet”22 (Pangsao Pass) hku rai nga ai. Mogawng hkawhkam hte Ahom hkawhkam ni gaw Sam ni, rai nga ma ai. Ahom ni mung Hukawng hkran kawq nna Pangsau hkyet lailam hku nna Assam de ginru ginsa laibang hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Pangsau hkyet lailam hpe shawngdaw prat di gaw “Pani Duar”23 ngu, tsun shaga laiwa sai. Dian hkawseng prat, Nanchao hkawseng prat ni hte Kamarupa hkawseng prat aten hkan nah lailam mung, Pangau Hkyet lailam hku nna rai nga ma ai. Hukawng palayang de laishang hkratbang matwa ai ni lawq malawng gaw, Pangsau hkyet lailam hpe bai lang nhtawm, Assam palayang de ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratshang nga ma ai. Magah mi hku bai tsun ga nga yang, Hukawng-Assam lailam gaw moi prat nah hpaga yamga hkrumlam langai, rai nga ai. Scholar nkau ni gaw, ndai lam hpe lawuq magah hku lai ai “Lairi Lam” (Lower Silk Road) ngu tawn nga ma ai. Bai, Hugawng palayang nah pru ai hpaga yamga arung arai ni gaw, Hugawng-Assam (Pang-

22“Pangsau” gaw “Pongsao” kawq nna shamying hkratwa ai amying shingteng rai nga ai. “Mogawng” hpe shawng prat daw de “Pong” ngu nna mung shamying shaga matwa sai. Sau (Sao, Chao, Jau, Chaohpa ngu ai gaw ‘Sam gahkum’ hku, “Chieftain, Zawbwa, Zau” rai nga ai) gaw, du magam rai nga ai. Pong hpe uphkang ai du magam ngu ai ‘Pong Chao’ nna “Pangsau” ngu hkratwa ai hpe, madiq madun tawn nga ma ai.

23“Pani Duar” (hkaq chyinghkalam; entrance by water or river route; Pani means “water” and Duar is “door”).

Sau Hkyet) lam hku nna India24 de laibang ai, rai nga ai. Dai hte maren, Hugawng pa de na mung, Miwa mungh de Mogawng lam hku nna bai lai lungwa ai, rai nga ai.

Chyaukang hkyet hte Dihpuk La hkyet lapran htaq, Putao Pa (Maliq Hkuh Majoi) kawq nna India hkran de, mai laisa ai lailam kaji lahkawng nawq nga nga ai. Dai yan gaw, Chyaukang hkyet lahtaq yang e, laidiq ai lailam langai hte Dihpuk La hkyet lawuq magah kawq Lohit de laishang galeq ai lailam ni, rai nga ai. Tsun ga nga yang, Sinhpo ni nga ai Arunachal Pradesh nah “Teng Hkawng” bugah de, galeq pruhkrat ai lam, rai nga ai. Chyaukang hkyet lahtaq kawq nah lailam gaw, Putao palayang kawq nna sinnaq magah de India mungh kata na “Dahpa Bum”25 kaba lawuq hku nna Noa Dihing magah laibang mai ai lam, rai nga ai. Bai nna, lagan gam ai lailam langai gaw Putao palayang aq loi lahtaq magah hku lai lungwa nhtawm, Lohit lahtaq magah yang de galeq hkratbang mai ai ginru ginsa hkrunlam, rai nga ai. Ndai lam lahkawng yang aw, laisa mai ai raitim, laiwa laisa yak ai. Tsun mayu ai gaw Pangsau ginru ginsa lailam htaq, grau yak nga ai. Ginru ginsa ahtik labau hpaji hparat hku yu ai htaq lai nna lamuga hpaji masa myijut ningmu hku dinglik maram yang mung, lahtaq e sanglang bang tawn ai “hkyet” (pass) lailam ni sha, ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratshang lailam mai byin nga ai. Ngam ai laga shara mayan hkan gaw, shingra maka masa hku nna mung, tutdang yak-hkak kaba nga ai. Ndai kawq, tsun matwa ai htaq, “Kabaw Valley” palayang lahtaq magah kawq nna

24“India” ngu ai gaw “Indus River Civilization” byin hpangwa ai “Indus River” na shamying hkratwa ai shingteng amying rai nga ai. Indian amyu masha ni shamying la ai mying n re; shinggan maigan masha ni shamying ya ai amying shingteng rai nga ma ai.

25 The “Dahpa Bum” (15,020 feet above sea level) can not be seen from the Hukawng Valley, but it is visibe from the Patkai rang.

Naga Bum mayan lamuga masa ni na ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratbang lailam hkyet ni hpe n tsun shalawm nngai.

Hugawng palayang de Jinhpaw aga tsun shaga ai Kachin ni, ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratbang matwa ai kawq nna shaning kade lawq matwa tim, Kachin ni a-nga ade apra shayan, rai nga ma ai. Tsun mayu ai gaw, Hugawng palayang waqlawng lamuga hpe tawn kabai kau (snr) kasat shachyut gawt jahtawq shabra kau hkrum ai mabyin masa ni, n nga nga ai. Hugawng palayang kawq nna Kachin ginru ginsa hkrumlam masum bai chyahkrat pruwa ai. Dai ni htaq, nkau gaw Assam de, bai laga nkau kachin ni gaw Danai-Chindwin hkaq hkan nna Shwebo-Jaunggawng kahtawng, Monyawa lamuga ni di ginru gisa hkratbang matep gayau mat ai ni mung, nga nga ma ai. Shanhte ni htaq nah nkau gaw, Kabaw valley de buhtawt hkratshang matwa ai ni mung, lawm nga ma ai. English ni du shangwa ai aten hkan du hkra, nkaukau gaw Jinghpaw aga nawq tsun shaga ngam ai ni lawm tim, laga amyu mying shamying lawm matwa ai ni nga nga ma ai. Gashadawn, “Taman” amyu ni htaq Jinghpaw ga tsun shaga ai ni lawm nga ai hpe English laili laika ni kawq, chyelu  tim, yaq dainih (today) gaw Taman amyu tam n mu mat nga sai. Masha nan gaw, htum maq mat ai nrai nga ai; raitim amyu gaw n nga nga sai hpe tsun mayu ai, rai nga nngai. Hpang jahtumh ngam ai ginru ginsa hkrumlam gaw, Htingnai26 bugah ginra ni de bai chyashang matwa ai, rai nga ai.27 Kachin ni ginru ginsa ringchying taw nga ai aten ni htaq, Assam hkran de na Assamese mayam ni hpe rim lahkawn dunwa nna Hugawng palayang de woiwa nga ma ai. Hugawng palayang kawq nna Daru Bum lailam laidiq (Daru Hkyet) nhtawm, Maliq- Nmai Waqlawng hkran de, woilungwa ma ai. Mayam hpaga lam mung, rai nga ai. Kachin htaq mayam walawq ai ginra gaw Assam, Hugawng hte Maliq Waqlawng shara ni, rai nga ma ai. Ndai shara ni kawq, British hte “Mungkan Amyusha Hpung” (Leage of Nations) ni, mayam shalawt masing bungle wagalaw ai shara ni, rai nga ma ai. Kachin ni lu ai mayam ni htaq, lawq malawng gaw Assamese (Mungnun) mayam ni, rai nga ma ai.

Kachin ni Hugawng palayang kawq nna Assam palayang de buhtawt shangbang hkratwa ai htaq mabyin masa lahkawng hpe mai mu-mada nga ai. (1). Assam palayang (Assam valley) de hkailuq hkaishah kaja ai majaw mung rai, tamluq tamshah tsitlali ai majaw mung rai, buhtawt hkratbang ai mung, rai nga ma ai. (2). N-gun kaji ai du magam amyu ni hpe n-gun kaba ai du magam amyu ni kasat jahtawq shabra kau dat ai majaw mung, rai nga ma ai. Gashadawn, Pisa ni Hugawng Pa kawq nga nga ai aten

26“Htingmai” bugah ginra ni gaw Jinghpaw mungdaw yang e, Maliq hkaq kaba (Irrawady River) hte hkrangleng lam lapran lamuga ni mung rai nna hkrangleng lam sinnaq mayan lamuga, rai nga ma ai. Htingnai bugah Jinghpaw ni gaw, Htingnai nsen manawng hte tsun shaga nga ma ai. Htingnai buga mayan htaq ginru ginsa zup ai Kachin ni gaw Hugawng hkran, Manmaw-Shwegu hkran hte Maliq hkaq sinprawq hkran hku nna Irrawady hkaqnu hpe raplai nhtawm, Mogawng hku nna ginru ginsa hkratbang ni mung, rai nga ma ai. Mogawng hku nna ginru ginsa hkratwa ai Kachin ni htaq Maru-Lashi ni lawm tim, Htingnai Jinghpaw rai mat nga ma ai. Hugawng hte Manmaw-Shwegu hkran hku shangbang hkratwa ai ni gaw Jinghpaw ni rai nga ma ai. Ndai ginru ginsa hkrunlam masum hku zupde nga ai lamuga ntsa htaq laklai ai “Jinghpaw nsen manawng mahkuh” (Htingnai Jinghpaw dialect) langai shaga pruwa nga ai. Htingnai Gah de, Manmaw-Shwegu palayang de nna ginru ginsa rapdiq laibang ai nga tim, Hugawng magah de na Jinghpaw ginru ginsa ni ram, n lawq nga ma ai. Manmaw Jinghpaw tsun shaga nsen manawng htaq, grau nna Htingnai Jinghpaw tsun shaga nsen manawng gaw Hugawng Jinghpaw tsun shaga nsen manawng hte, matut nihtep nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Lachyum gaw, Hugawng Jinghpaw nsen manawng galup nga ai.

27 Maran Brang Di, “Wunpawng Labau shang May (5), 1826”, P-21, ‘Shawnglam Magazine’, (unpublished), New Delhi, 1992.

 

htaq, n-gun kaba ai rusai htinggaw ni, rai nga ma ai. Danai mare aq lawuq mayan hkan, gumhkawng ka-up matwa ai amyu ni, rai nga ma ai. Raitim, hpangdaw de Pisa (Bisa) ni hpe laga Jinghpaw du magam ni bai kasat ayai hkat ai ninghkan Pisa ni Assam hkran de kanawng shangbang hkratwa ai mabyin mung, nga nga ai. Hukawng Pa nah Pisa amyu ni aq lamuga shara ni htaq, laga Jinghpaw maduq magam ni bai shangbang nga mat ai hpe J.F. Needham tsun madiq tawn nga ai.28 Raitim, Pisa amyu ni yawng Assam hkran de htawqshang matwa ai, n rai nga ai. Laga Pisa ni mung shara shagu chyambra nga ma ai. Hugawng palayang na Kachin giru ginsa gaw, laga amyu ni shang kasat gashun jeshang adawt pruwa ai majaw, Kachin ni bai ginru ginsa agat atsat yai matwa ai n re sha, Kachin kata na lawnglam ni aq majaw Kachin ginru ginsa ni bai kahtap brachyam matwa ai hkrang ni, rai nga ma ai. Daimajaw, Kachin lamuga hpyenhpyen papa matut matwa lu ai hkrang mung, rai nga ai.

Kachin ni ginru ginsa buhtawt shangbang hkratwa ai shaloi, Hukawng palayang e Hkang, Sam, Hkaman, Ahom, Balawng ni mung nga nga taw sai majaw, majan kasat gala hkat ma ai. Lajaq lana kasat hkat ai, rai nga ma ai. Kasat gala jaubu share shagan amyu ni nah ginru ginsa ninghkan, Sam, Balawng hte Hkang hpanshan ni, dingdaq lawuq (southern direction) magah de htawtyen ra mat nga ma ai. Kachin ginru ginsa du shangwa ai kawq nna “Hukawng” ngu ai amying shingteng mung nga wa ai, rai nga ai. “Hukawng” amying gaw, Jinghpaw ga lachyum hku, “ju Kawng” (cremation mounds) kawq nna gale tsun shaga shamying matwa ai hpe, Professor J. Russell Andrus madiq

28 J.F. Needham during his Hukawng valley expedition, 1891-92.

madun tawn nga ai.29

H.N.C. Stevenson bai madiq madun matwa ai htaq mung, “ndai kasat gala amyu hpung ni gaw Burma ntsa de duhkrat bangwa nhtawm, dingdung daw magah de nga ai” ngu nna lawm nga u ai. Ndai htaq, Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng dialup daihpang lamuga nna kalang bai nundawq kahtap hkratwa ai ginru ginsa gaw Hukawng, Htingnai, Katha-Naba, Mungmit-Sinli du hkra, hpyenhpyen papa rai mat nga ai. Ndai lamuga ni na htumpa jarit gaw, Kachin ginru ginsa kalang bai wahkring mat ai lamuga nhpan ni, rai nga ai. Kachin ginru ginsa hpyenhpyen papa hkrat shangwa ai majaw, dingdaq de nah Kachin ginru ginsa lamuga jarit ni gaw buga langai hte langai matut shayan matwa ai hpe mulu ai. British ni mung, ndai hku mu-mada tawn ai majaw, shanhte hkrangshawq shaprawq pruwa ai bungle maka kumla ni htaq, dai hpe mulu nga ai. Jahtumh daw de nna Kachin ginru gins aka-nawng hkratwa ai hpung-kun hkaqleng gaw mawru zawn arukje adawt shangwa ai hkrang, rai nga ai. “Masha ahpyen tsan ai, kasat gala shangwa ai dingbai dingna n nga ai, shimlum ai Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng dialup daihpang” htaq, Kachin ni dabat nna shaning tsalam kahtap nhtawm, ninggun bai ban mahkawng shalawq lah matwa ai akyu mahtai nah kahtap pruwa ai Kachin ginru ginsa hkrang, rai nga maluq ai. British bai dushangwa ai hte, Kachin ginru ginsa hkaqleng kanawng ashun ai zim mat nga sai. Tsun mayu ai gaw, bumba

29 J. Russell Andrus, “Burmese Economic Life”, 1947, P-33 in which “A highly successful fighting race, they forced the Chins, Palaungs and Shans farther south. The Hukawng valley gets its name from the innumerable mounds in it where the corpses of the Shans slain by the Kachins were cremated; “ju kawng” in the Jinghpaw dialect means “Cremation Mounds”. (J. Russell Andrus was a former professor of Economics, University of Rangoon).

batba amyusha lamuga maduq matwa ai ginru ginsa hpe tsun ai, rai sai.

Assam Valley htaq Ahom hkawseng gaw, hkik-hkam matwa sai. Ahom amyu ni gaw Tai Khamti ni htaq shawng shawng e, ginru ginsa buhtawt hkratbang shangwa ai ni, rai nga ma ai. Ahom hkawseng mungdan hpe Assam palayang kawq ningpawt gawsharawt dat ai gaw Sukapha (Chukapha, 1228 AD – 1268), rai nga ai.30 Hugawng palayang htaq, nga ngam ai Ahom ni, atsai awai krin mat hkra, byinlai matwa sai.31 Ahom ni hpe Hugawng palayang kawq nna hpang jahtum atsai awai agut sha-krin matwa ai aten gaw 15th AD century hkan, rai nga ai. Ahom gaw, Sam amyu hpanshan, rai nga ma ai. Bai, Ahom hpanshan kawq nna “Assamese” (Mungnun) de rai mat nga nhtawm, Assamese gaw Ahom hte Aryan gayau gumchyaq matwa ai amyu, rai nga ai. Gayau gumchyaq mat ai ngu htaq asai, aga, htunghkring, makam masham, buhpun mawnsumli, maluq mashah satlawat nah hkawt hpe tsun madun mayu ai re. Ndai amyu ni shadaq daq gayau gumchyaq matwa ai htaq, ginru ngam mat aim aka kumla malawng ni gaw, masha jahpan lawq ai amyu ni galup dagup matwa ai hpe mulu nga ai. Ahom amyu maka kumla htaq grau nna Aryan Kala ni aq maka kumla grau nga ngam grin matwa ai.

30Anil Chandra Banerjee, “The Eastern Frontier of British India : 1784-1826”, 1946, P-10.

31 H.N.C. Stevenson, “The Hill Peoples of Burma”, Burma Pamphlets No. 6, 1944, P-9 : “This fighting group descended upon Burma and occupied the northern hills to the exclusion of Chins, Palaungs to the south, and the last remaining descendents of the once powerful Ahoms almost exterminated. The Hukawng valley gets its name from the innumerable mounds ni it where the corpses of the Shans slain by the Kachins were cremated ; ‘ju-kawng’ in the Jinghpaw dialect means “cremation mounds”.

Kachin wuhpawng kata htaq e mung, grau nna maduq magam shadaq daq kasat hkat, sat hkat, nat hkat, matai bai htang hkat rai ai arawn alai satlawat ni mung nga nga ma ai. Jinghpaw ni na loidik matai htang ai ladat langai gaw dumnta, mandum ni hpe wan nat jahkat kau yaya re ai,  rai nga maluq ai. Masat tawn ai Kachin du magam jadip jahpang lamuga htaq, ahkangh n hpyi ai sha, kadai mung yi, sun, hkau-na n mai galawshah nga ma ai. “Mang” (si mat sai masha hkumtsawp) hpe mung, majoi hkrupmaraq, laga du magam shara gaiwang de, n mai salup nga ma ai. Simang makoi mayang, lamuga shara tam lataq ai htunglailen mung, Kachin htaq nga nga ma ai. Tsun mayu ai gaw, masat tawn ai tinang lamuga gaiwang kata e sha, mai galaw nga ma ai. Kachin madu magam ni tinang hkawng shara, jadip jahpang hte, nga hkratwa ai hkrai raitim, shahte chyawmlang ai htunglai htungtarah, htunghking gaw langai sha, rai nga ma ai. Kachin maduq magam la-pran htaq, manghkang pruwa jang, manghkang kaba jang, n-gun jaq dumh jang, mying kaba hkik dumh jang kasat gala hte, hpungdim datdat rai hkat ma ai. Shadaq daq kasat gala shayan matwa tim, Kachin htunghking numwawn numlah kahpu kanau rudiq mahkrun hku nna bai shapri shatsawm nhtawm, chyawmhpawng chyawmpra nga hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Maduq magam ni kadai mung kadai, tinang lamuga jadi jahpang hte, masat nna nga hkratwa ai zawn palayang ni de mung, tinang “Samhkai Lamuga”32 ni nga nga ma ai. Kachin maduq magam shadaq daq kata manghkang kasat gala htaq, Samhkai ni shanglawm kasat ai lawnglam shau

32“Samhkai lamuga” ngu ai lachyum gaw Sam ni hpe Kachin du magam ni shara jahkrat tawn ya ai; makawp maga tawn ya ai hpe tsun ai, rai nga ai.

  1. Sam kahtawng hkan na Sam ni na “Seming Nat”33jawqjau ai ni htaq mung, Kachin maduq magam ni hpe jawqjau ai lawm nga ma ai. Gashadawn, Nshawn jarit Loije Sam Seming Nat gaw “Kachin Hpalang Du” ni hpe jawqjau ai, rai nga ma ai. Namwu dujan nat jawqjau ai hpe mung, palayang Sam ni htaq, mulu nga ai. Namhkam mare na Namhkam Seming Nat mung, Kachin maduq magam ni hpe jawqjau ai, rai nga ma ai. Namhkam Seming Nat-ra gaw, Namhkam bumpawt kawq, nga nga ai. Namhkam mare hte, kade n tsan ai shara htaq, galaw tawn nhtawm shaning shagu October shata e, poi galaw jawqjau nga ma ai. Dai Namhkam Seming Nat poi hpe Sam ni gaw “Poi Sau Sam” (nkau gaw, Poi Jaukang) ngu nga ma ai. Lachyum gaw, “Zau Sam Poi” (Muk-hkyu Jaukang Poi) ngu ai, rai nga ma ai. Sam ni gaw, shanhte hkum hpanshan hpe “Sam” ngu nna n tsun lah nga ma ai. Jinghpaw gaw Sam hpe “Sam” ngu ai, rai nga ai. “Namhkam Seming Sau Sam Poi” gamung dupwa jang, moi shawng de, Namhkam mare gaw wan (မီ္္း) grai hkruhkat rairai re ai majaw Sau Sam (Zau Sam) hpe jawqjau ai kawq nna zim matwa ai, ngu nna Sam ni dainih du hkra, tsun nga ma ai. Ndai mung, maduq magam ni hpe jawqjau ai, rai nga ai. Dai hte maren, Manmaw “Maha Tingdaw Gyi Zeti Daw” hpe mung, Sam hte Jinghpaw ni gaw “Mawng Gam” hpara ngu nga ma ai. Ne Win Gumlang Mung-up Magam lungwa ai hpang, MSL prat (Myanma Socialist Lanzin Party; Bogyoke Ne Win

33“Seming Nat” (&SifBuD;ewf) ngu ai gaw, Sam kahtawng ni hkan mare kahtawng makau mayang hkan e, dum-nta galaw shachyawq bang tawn ai n nga ai sha, hpun maling kaba ni hpe shatut masat tawndah ai shara kawq jawqjau ai hpe tsun ai, rai nga ai. Ndai zawn zawn re hpe, dainih du hkra, Manmaw-Myitkyina mawdaw lam mayan htaq Numlang kahtawng hte Tali kahtawng lapran na Sam kahtawng ni htaq, mawdawlam makau e nawq mulu nga ai. Ndai sawt sawt re htunghking hkrang hpe Kachin htaq gaw, mare kahtawng numshang jawqjau natra ngu ai, rai nga ma ai.

Era : 1958-1988) kawq sheq, Maha Tingdaw Gyi Zeti Daw ngu nna shamying pruwa nga ma ai. Shawngdaw de gaw, yawng yawng “Mawng Gam Hpara” ngu nhtawm, October shata shagu htaq galaw nga ai dai poi hpe gaw “Mawng Gam Poi” ngu laiwa masai. Dai mung, Jinghpaw maduq magam hpe jawqjau ai gamung tsundup nga ma ai.34 Ndai sawt sawt re ai gamung mabyin ni, Kachin ginra htaq lawq lawq nga nga ai.

Assam palayang de buhtawt hkratbang ai Singpho ni htaq, British matsing ningting laili laika ni kawq, grau nna mulu ai Jinghpaw maduq magam mying ni gaw Pisa (Bisa), Daihpa (Duffa), Lahtaw (Lattao), Ningru (Ningroo) hte Dumsa ni, rai nga ai. Madung gaw Jatsen (Chyatsen, Satsen) bawqhpan ni, rain nga ma ai. Assam hte Hugawng palayang nah Kachin ni gaw, shadaq daq grau htinglu htinglai nga nga ma ai. Lachyum gaw, lamuga masalam grau nihtep ai ninghkan, rai shajang nga ma ai.

Singpho lamuga hte, Maliq Hkuh Majoi lahtaq magah de gaw Tibet Mungh nga nga ai. “Kachin ginru ginsa gaw, Tibet lamuga kawq nna dainih ngade pra-nga ai shara de chyahkrat bangwa ai re”, ngu ai hpe kadai ninghkap n lu na ma ai. Dihpuk La hkyet hpe laidiq nhtawm, Maliq Hkuh (Putao-Machyangbaw kadit palayang waqlawng) de mai chyashang ai zawn, Dihpuk La hkyet hpe koi nna dingdaq de ginru ginsa hkratbang na hkrumlam gaw Zayu (Dzayul), Walawng, Rima, Minzong, Hoyuliang, Teju, Sadiya…. hku nna Brahmaputra kadit palayang (Assam Valley) de lamuga matut shayan ai hkrunlam nga nga ai. Miri, Dafla, Abor, Adi….. ni gaw, ndai ginru ginsa hkrulam hpe lang

34 B.D. Maran, “Kachin” (Lera Wawra Kikkik Kawkkawk Mahkawng), 2010, KRJ – Special Issue, Laiza, P-124. (Henceforth : B.D. Maran, 2010).

hkratwa ma ai. Mishmi (Hkaman, Khaman)35 ni gaw, Dihpuk La hkyet lailam hte Zayu-Walawng hkrunlam lahkawng yan hpe shanhte ginru ginsa buhtawt hkrunlam hku lang hkratwa ma ai. Daimajaw, Mishmi (Hkaman) ni hpe Putao kadit palayang Maliq Hkuh lamuga ni hte Arunachal Pradesh lahtaq jahtumh de na “Mishmi Hills” ngu ai Hkaman Bum ni hkan ngade pra ai hpe, mulu nga ai. Zayu (Dzayul County) lamuga ginra gaw Maliq Hkuh Majoi (Putao Valley) sinnaq magah Dihpuk La hkyet lahtaq yang e, Miwa-Kala-Myen mungdan masumbrum hkrum  ai shara makau de na “ginru ginsa hkringsaq lailam shara” (migration stop-over and transition zone) langai, rai nga ai. Zayu (Dzayul) ginru ginsa hkringsaq lailam shara kawq nna “Mankawng” (Sman Khungs) hte “Warawng” (Tsha Warawng) ni hku nna Dihpuk La hkyet hpe laidiq shang hkratwa yang, Maliq Hkuh Majoi (Putao Kadit palayang) de ginru ginsa hkratbang ai gaw, Zayu (Dzayul) kawq nna Walawng, Rima – Teju – Assam kadit palayang de dushang na htaq, grau loi, grau hkrumlam kadun nga ai. Ndai gaw lamuga masalam hpe tsun ai, rai nga nngai. Kachin ni gaw, hkring nga na mahkau htaphtuk ai Maliq Hkuh Majoi de grau nihtep ai ginru ginsa hkrunlam hku chyashang hkratbang ai, rai nga ma ai. Jinghpaw ni, Assam Brahmaputra kadit palayang de mung, Walawng-Rima-Teju ginru ginsa hkrunlam hku nna ningshawng dantawk chyanshang hkratbang ai mabyin satlawat nga nga ai. Ginru ginsa hkrunlam htaq, Arunalchal Pradesh lahtaq de nga ai Mishmi bun ni hte, kahtep matut ai gaw “Dafa” (Dahpa, Daihpa) bum, rai nga ai. Ndai gaw Jinghpaw ni na ginru

35 B.D. Maran, 2010, P.45-61.

ginsa aten na shamying hkratwa ai, rai ang nga ai.36

Assam Brahmaputra kadit palayang de Jinghpaw ni Zayu-Walawng-Teju-Sadiya ginru ginsa hkrunlam hku ningshawng hkratbang ngalai matwa ai zawn, Maliq Hkuh Majoi (Putao valley) hte Hugawng kadit palayang hku nna hpangdaw de, bai Assam kadit palayang de ginru ginsa shanghkrat bang ma ai. Lachyum gaw, Mekhong-Salween hkaq mayan shanang matwa ai ningshawng ginru ginsa hkrat satlawat sawt sawt rai nga ai. Ndai Sam mungdaw htaq mulu ai gaw, Maliq-Nmai Walawng na shangbang hkratwa ai ni nga ai zawn, lahtaq de nna dantawk Miwa hkran lamuga (Salween-Mekhong Rivers; sinprawq magah sha-nang ai ginru ginsa) hku ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai mabyin ni nga ai. Grau nna Azi, Maru hte Lashi ni htaq, mulu nga ai. Myen wuhpung ginru ginsa

36 Assam Jorhat District gaiwang nah “Tarung HKawng” (PotharGaon, Tipaniya, Pahu, Kotiya, Rengmai, Balipothar, Ahumani….) ni hkan, chyampra nga ai Jinghpaw tsun shaga aga jailang ai Tarung ni hpe shachyen shaga dat yang, “Dafa” (Dahpa, Daihpa) ni rai ga ai, ngu nna malawng ngu na daram, tsun nga ma ai. Arunchal Govt. Singpho hkringmang “C.C. Singpho” wa mung, Tarung Jinghpaw wa rai nna “Dafa” amyu re lam, hkrum katut shachyen ai shaloi tsun nga ai. Tarung Ninggup labau htaq, Tarung amying shingteng luwa ai hpe, shanhte ni tsundan ai gaw : “ginru ginsa prat aten htaq shanhte ni Dafa Bum makau mayang kawq nga ai nlunghku tawang (nbunghku) kalu kawq shang matwa nna bai jawtle pruwa ai ni hpe “Dafa” (Dahpa) ngu matwa ai” hpe, tsun nga ma ai. “Dahpa” bum gaw ginru ginsa apart aten kawq nna nga nga taw nhtawm, Kachin ginru ginsa ni hte gamung kasawt nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Ndai Tarung Dahpa (Daihpa) amying gaw, Myen  hkawhkam Konebawng hkaseng prat (1752-1885) na “Taik Phaa, wdkufzm; “ (Shu Kasat snr Shu Majan) ngu ai amying kawq nna pruwa ai re, ngu na matu yak mat nga ai. Grau mai byin ai gamung langai (snr. n re ngu tsun madiq sanglang sakse tam na yak ai lawnglam) gaw, “Dafa” (Dahpa, Daifa, Daihpa) ngu ai gahkum shingteng mying hpe Bodo tsun shaga gahkum hte matut mahkai nga nga ai hpe, mulu nga ai. Please see : B. D. Maran, 2010, P.93-94.

Mung, Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng de n shang ai sha, dantawk Sam mungh de hkratwa nhtawm, Irrawaddy Valley de yuq hkratwa ai ni, rai nga maluq ai. Jinghpaw gaw Sam mungdaw de, Miwa Mungh kawq nna bai kahtap hkratbang ai mi nga tim, Miwa de na “Jinghpaw” (Shatung)37 ginru ginsa gaw Maliq-Nmai Walawng dialup daihpang na bai hktat ai ni hkrat ai ni hkrai, rai nga ma ai.

Singhpo ginru ginsa ninggup gamung htaq, shanhte ni “Putao valley – Maliq hkuh ginra mayan” hte Hugawng hkran hku nna buhtawt hkratbang ai gamung hkrai tsun nga ai. Lachyum gaw, dai shara madung lahkawng kawq nna bai hktatbang ai ngu ai htaq, hpangdaw ginru ginsa chyashang matwa ai ni chyusha, Singhpo hku grin ngam mat ai majaw, rai nga ai. Ahom hkawseng mungdan gaw amyingsha ngam mat nna “Kala Mungnun” (Indianised Assamese) hku gale matwa ai htaq, ningshawng ginru ginsa hktatbang ai “Singhpo” (dantawk Dzayu kawq nna Assam kadit palayang de) ni mung, dai htaq lawm kayau mat nga ma ai. Raitim, lamuga amying shingteng ni  chyusha, shanhte pra-nga hkrat matwa ai shara ni hkan, sakse madun madiq ya nga ai ngu na sha, ngam mat nga ai. Ningshawng hkrat Singpho ni Assam Brahmaputra kadit palayang nna bai Maliq Hkuh Majoi de gayin lungwa na mung, n loi mat nga sai; lachyum gaw htunghking (civilization) gayau galup hkrumh nna kapnang dunlawm mat ai nga ma ai. Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng dialup daihpang de nah, bai kahtap prahkrat ai Kachin ni htaq, “Singpho” ngu ai hku nna nga ngam grin ai hpe sha, mulu mat nga ai. Ndai kawq, langai tsun kahtap bang mayu ai gaw, Putao kadit palayang

37“Shatung” ngu nna Azi ni, Jinghpaw ni hpe tsun shaga hpangwa ai gaw, Miwa ni Jinghpaw hpe “Sanhtu” ngu ai nsen kawq nna Zaiwa (Azi) nsen manawng hte bai tsun shaga pruwa ai nsen mying, rai nga ai.

(Khamti Long, Bor Khamti) na Sam Hkamti ni gaw Dihpuk La hkyet (Dihpuk La Pass) hku ginru ginsa yanshang hkratwa ai ni, n rai nga ma ai. Shanhte ni gaw, Lisu, Nung-Rawang ni ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai sinprawq lahtaq jut hkyet hku shangbangwa ai ni rai nhtawm, Maliq Hkuh Majoi kawq nna nkau gaw hkaqnam magah (Njang Yang – Gindu Yang) de bai kahtap brachyam hkratwa ma ai. Daimajaw, Sam nkau hpe lawuq Maliq Waqlawng de bai wa-mu ai, rai nga ai. Nkau gaw Hugawng de buhkrat ai mung, nga nga ai. “Dingdaq-sinprawq Ashadan” (South-East Asia) lamuga htaq , Sam amyu rusai ni nah sinnaq magah sha-nang jahtumh ai ginru ginsa wuhpung ni, rai nga sai. Shahte hta grau sinnaq magah jahtum ai “Sam ginru ginsa” hpe n mu mat sai. Nung Lungmi (Khanung) ginru ginsa gaw, laga Rawang bawsang dinghku ni htaq grau nna lamuga damlada nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Shanhte ni hpe “Dihpuk La Hkyet” sinnaq magah de nah Tibet shara ni htaq du hkra, chyambra nga hkratwa ma ai hpe mulu ai. Sinprawq de nga yang, Nujiang – Dulawng hkan du hkra, chyambra nga ma ai. Tibetan ni gaw, Maliq Hkuh Majoi ginra hkan du hkra, mayam shatai na masha shangrim ma ai. Shanhte ni rimwoi mat mat re ai ni gaw, masha kadun (dwart) hpan ni malawng lawq nga ma ai.

Lahtaq Sam Mungh (Northern Shan State) lamuga ginra htaq, Kachin ginru ginsa gaw bangbangpaq wahkrat nga ai. Ndai htaq Sinli Gah, Mungmit Gah, Tawngpeng Gah (Loilung), Mung Yai hte Hsipaw (Thibaw), … ni rai nga ma ai. Dainih na munghpawm Myen mungdan lamuga htaq, ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai lam kaba madung lahkawng nga nga ai. Dai lahkawng yan gaw : (i). “Sinnaq hkran ginru ginsa hpung bumlam” (Western upland group migration way), (ii). “Sinprawq hkran ginru ginsa hpung bumlam” (Eastern upland group migration way) ni, rai nga ma ai. Kachin ni mung, ndai ginru ginsa hkrunlam lahkawng yan hku nna yanshang lawm sai. Mungdan lawuq hte ka-ang lapran shara ni hkan, hkratbang shanu nga ai amyu bawsang ni malawng magah mung “Sinprawq hkran ginru ginsa hpung bumlam” hku shangbang yuq wa ai ni hkrai, rai nga ma ai. Myen amyu bawsang mung ndai ginru ginsa hkrunlam hku nna Sam mungh lamuga ginra hku laidiq nhtawm, Irrawaddy (Maliq hkaq kaba) masawn Kyaukse ginra de dushang matwa ai, rai nga ma ai. “Sinnaq hkran ginru ginsa hpung bumlam” hkrunlam masa hku hkannang shangbang hkratwa ai ni gaw Irrawaddy hkaq sinnaq hkran mayan ni htaq, nagchyam hkring mat ai, rai nga ai. Shanhte wuhpung htaq nah amyu bawqsang nkau ni gaw “Kala mungh dingdung-sinprawq” (Northeast India) lamuga de, laishang chyambra matwa nga ma ai. Irrawaddy hkaq valley mayan gaw, sha-ning hkinglam kahtap ai hpang, Tibeto-burma aga tsun shaga ai amyu bawqsang ni aq ginru ginsa, shadaq daq bai wa-katut hkrumhkat ai zawn, ginru ginsa chyambra hkratbang ai lamuga shing-ra masa gaiwang langai hku sha zawn, wabyin nga ai hpe mulu nga ai. Ndai satlawat zawn, Northeast India de hkratshang matwa sai Tibeto-burma aga tsun shaga ai amyu bawsang ni mung, Assam kadit palayang (Assam Brahmaputra river valley) htumpa masawn htaq, Indo-European (Aryan; Indo-Greek) aga tsun shaga nga ai amyu bawqsang ni hte, ginru ginsa hkrumh katut hkat nhtawm, lungwa ai hte yuqwa ai ginru ginsa ni hkring shajang mat nga ma ai. Ndai hku, hkring katut hkat ai aten galu mat ai ninghkan, kayau hkat matwa nna “n lawq amyu” ni gaw, lawqlaq ai amyu ni kawq kaplawm mat ai mabyin ni sha, ngam mat nga ai. Gayau ai ngu ai htaq “htunhkring hte asai” (civilization and blood) gayau mat ai hpe tsun mayu ai, rai nga nngai.

Sumla Scan Bang Na Shara

Lahtaq Sam Mungh (Northern Shan State) lamuga gaw, ginru ginsa hkrunlam lamlamaw kaba ntsa htaq, wa-ang mat nga ai. Ndai lamuga shara hkan, ningshawng kringmading rai, pra-nga laiwa sai Loila (La), Balawng hpan ni mung, amyu bawqsang ni langai hte langai aq ginru ginsa ni yanshang shayan adawt hkrumsha ai majaw, Saphkung hkaq (Salween River) sinprawq hkran de, bai ninghtang htingnut matwa ai, rai nga ma ai.38 Shanhte ni gaw, “Austroloid” tsun shaga aga jailing nhtawm, ningshawng ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai ni mung, rai nga ma ai. Sam Mungh ting htaq, wachyat kumhpuh rawng mat ai amyu bawsang ni gaw, hkaq madim nah “ngah (ngaa, fish) tingrawq” e, ngah (ngaa) hkratbang ai zawn, chyatmatep rawng shajang ai hte, bung nga ma ai. Daimajaw, Sam Mungh htaq, Loila (La), Wa, Pa-O, Sam, Balawng, Kachin, Danu, Intha, Thongthu, Lahu, Ahka, Kokang, Munglar, Miwa, Padawng, Lisu… ni hpe damlada ai hku, rudiq hpan e lawm ai ginru ginsa hkrang ni htaq, mulu nga ai.

Lahtaq Sam Mungh (Northern Shan State) lamuga hkrang hpe madayu dat yang, sinnaq de Shweli (Nmau) hkaq hte sinprawq de Salween (Saphkung) hkaq yan na lapran htaq, gaiwang kaba wa-ang rawng nga ai. Ginru ginsa madim tingrawq-kaq hkrang lamuga masa wabyin nga ai. Hpamajaw nga yang, ndai hkaq kaba lahkawng yan nah lapran ka-ang yang htaq, Namtu hkaq, Namlim hkaq, Namhkai hkaq, Namyao hkaq, Sinli hkaq, …ni, bai ningpawt hpang lwilai yuq hkratwa nga ai. Mungbaw hkaq mung, Mungbaw ginra kawq nna sinnaq de Nmau hkaq kawq, lwihkrat bang nga ai. Namlim hkaq gaw sinprawq de, Salween hkaq de lwibang nga ai. Salween hkaq sinprawq de, Salween hkaq de lwibang nga ai. Salween hkaq sinprawq hkran hte Miwa mungh jarit la-pran nah Kunlong-Chinshweho lahtaq daw

38 B.D. Maran, 2010, P-15.

(Gaugang, Kokang) gaw, ginru ginsa lamjut shanawm lamuga hku, bai wabyin nga ai. Daq-sangh sha n rai yang, ahpyen hkrum katut loi ai hkrunlam lamuga ntsa e, n ang nga ai. Lachyum gaw, “Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng” lamuga masa hkrang satlawat hku, wabyin nga ai. Daimajaw, Kachin ginru ginsa hpungkun ninggun wa-kaba shadat lah ai lamuga shara kaba gaw, “Maliq-Nmai Walawng dialup daihpang lamuga” (Maliq-Nmai Triangle Homeland), rai nga ai.

Maliq-Nmai Walawng dialup daihpang lamuga de, Kachin ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai hkrunlam ni htaq nah, Jinghpaw ni Maliq Hkuh Majoi kadit palayang de ningshawng dubang ma ai re, ngu ai hpe “nganglu htaq, hpaqraq” hku nna “Kachin htunghking myitjasat” (Kachin culture concept) hte, bai kahtap sanglang ladawn madiq dat nngai. Ndai gaw, Jinghpaw ni amying shamying jawq ai hkrang lailen (the way of Kachin nomenclature) satlawat, rai nga ai. Shinggyim masha lailen htaq, tinang hkumhkrang nah lami laman ni hpe shamying ai aga gahkum amying ni gaw, ti-nang amyu rusai madung ajet aq tsun shaga aga rai sai. Jinghpaw htaq, tsun ga nga yang shinglet, shadai, karah, nyengmun, n-gup, jinti, jinin, jit, hkyi, myihkyi, lahtan, shabyi, chyu,…. ni rai nga ma ai. Tinang hkum kawq, kap ai ruhkrat rudiq amyu aga ajet, rai sai. Laga amyu ni kawq nna shaplang (hkoilang) snr laga amyu wa aq aga rem lah (bau-maka lah) ai hkrang, n rai nga ai. Tsun mayu ai gaw, ningpawt ninghpang ahking aten ni hkan na chyuqhkrat gasi ga-ngau ni, rai nga ai. Ndai “shing-ra tarah” (theory) hte, laga kadai amyu ni hpe jep dinglik dat tim, n shut nga ai. Dai hkrangmasa hku nna yawng aq shawng e, shangai pruwa ai num kasha hpe “Kaw” (Ma Kawq : Ma Hkawn, Ah Shawng), la kasha hpe rai yang “Gam” (Ma Gam : Hpuba, Ah Ba; Azi htaq “Lagam” ngu nna shamying jawq hkratwa ma ai. Ndai shamying jawq hkratwa ai gaw, htunghking hkrangmasa hku rai matwa sai. Shawng hkrat ai nga-wula rai yang, “nga gam”; ngayi rai yang mung “nga Kaw” (nga hkawn, nga shawng….) ngu nna shamying jawqlang hkratwa ma ai. Kachin maduq magam ni makawp maga shatut tawn ai palayang de na “Samhkai” ni hpe pyi gaw : “Sam Gam”, “Sam Naw”, “Sam La” … ngu nna shamying gawan tawn nga ma ai. Masha htaq, ninggup kata jahtum magah de, tu pruwa ai awa kaba (molar) hpe Jinghpaw ni “wa wugam, wa wu-kam, wa-ukam” ngu nga ma ai. Awa (tooth) hkum ai shaloi, wa hpe htih-ru (counting) ai shaloi shawng tu pruwa ai kawq nna htiru ai n re sha, jahtum kawq nna htih-ru hpang ai, rai nga ma ai. Dai hku nna, yawng aq shawng nah mungkan masha ngu na wa hpe Kachin dumsa jaiwa ninggup gamung htaq, “Ninggawn Magam Wa” ngu nna shamying jawq hkratwa ai, rai nga ai. Daisha n-ga, “Hkrai Gam, Hkrai Naw” … ngu nna shamying tsunlang hkratwa ma ai. Mungkan hpe dup shara ai “Ninggawn Magam Wa” ngu ai “chyulai ninggawn masha” (supernatural man) kawq na lah lang hkratwa ai n re zawn, Jinghpaw amyu rusai tsun shaga aga ningnan nga hpangwa ai ginru ginsa prat htaq, Jinghpaw dumsa-jaiwa gamung lawnglam kata hkan nah hpe tinang myuhpan amying bai jawq shakap hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Ndai gaw, anthropology hpaji hparat ningmu ladat hte, Kachin aq ginru ginsa hkrunlam hpe tam ayen galam ai hkrang langai, rai nga ai.

Kachin ni, amying shamying hkratwa ai satlawat hku nna ginru ginsa ngahkring ngabut shara jahkrat bangwa ai lamuga ni htaq, shawng hkrumh katut nga ai hkaq hpe amying hkapshamying jawq ai htaq mung, “Kaw (Kawq), Lu (Luq), Roi…” hku jawq matwa nga ma ai. Ndai hpe Kachin Dumsa Jaiwa aga gamung htaq, “Maliq Hkaq” (Maliq Kawq Shawng”, “Nmai Hkaq”39 (Nmai river) hpe “Saphkung Roi Grawng” … ngu nna ginru ginsa hktatbang chyambra pruwa ai ashawng ahpang satlawat hkan nhtawm, Jinghpaw ni shamying masat matwa ai gaw, dainih du hkra, tsun nga ma ai. Dai aq “hpungtang kashaw nsen” (echo) gaw, bai kanawng ashun shayan nga ai ngu yang, ndai ningmu hpe ninghkap htuh jahkrat kaulu na laga sakse sakgan ni, dainih (today) du hkra n nga, ai. Ndai mabyin masa satlawat hku dinglik sawn yang mung, Jinghpaw ginru ginsa gaw “Maliq Hkuh Majoi” (Putao-Machyangbaw valley) de shawng, ginru ginsa kabyeq dubang ai gaw danleng nga ai. Maliq hkuh lamuga kawq nna Maliq-Nmai Walawng, dai kawq nna bai sinprawq, sinnaq hte  dingdung shara shagu chyambra lagra hkratwa ai, rai nga ai. Tengsha tsunlu ai lawnglam langai gaw, Kachin ni “Maliq-Nmai Waqlawng” kawq nna lahtaq (dingdung) magah de, bai ginru ginsa n kahtap lungwa ai, rai nga ai.

39 Nmai Hkaq (Nmai river) ngu ai gaw “Hpungmai Hkaq” ngu ai kawq nna kahtap tsunlang matwa ai, rai nga ai. Jinghpaw aga ningpawt htaq hkaq (weater) hpan htaq, shamying ai kawq : hpunglar, hpungdawh, hpunggawq, hpungtung, hpungwai, hpungyawt, hpunglip, hpunglum, hpung-ya… ngu nna tsunlang hkratwa ai. Jinghpaw amying majing, rai nga ai. “N mai nna snr yak nna” ngu ai lachyum hku, ‘Nmai Hkaq’ ngu pruwa ai n re. “Nmai Hkaq” ngu nna shamying shaga matwa ai gaw “Manmaw : Gauri-Lanaq Jinghpaw” aga manawng hkrang, rai nga ai. Daimajaw Sinlum-Loije de na “Lungshawn Pa” hpe mung “Nshawn Pa” (Nshawn Pa damdam dawa!), ninggyi kasha hpe n-gyi kasha ngu ai zawn, “ninghtoi” (nhtoi), “ningpawt” (npawt), “ningdung” (ndung), “Mungmau hkaq” (Nmau hkaq), “Hpungmai hkaq” (Nmai hkaq), “ninglum ta” (nlum ta), “ningbya” (nbya), “lunghkrut” (nhkrut), “kumgyin si” (Lanaq Jinghpaw nsen gaw “n-gyin si”; Gauri Jinghpaw nsen gaw “jin si” bai ngu nga ma ai).

 

 

Marip Htingbai Naw Awn mung, Kachin ginru ginsa hte seng nna Kachin ni Tibet Mungh htaq Tibet hkawhkam “Songtsen Gampo” (Sawng Tsen Gam Bu) aten prat kawq, shangnga taw sai, ngu ai hpe Htingbai Naw Awn aq ningmu e, tsun shaprawq ladawn madiq tawn nga ai. Htingbai Naw Awn aq ningmu hpe, bai “ginru ginsa satlawat labau hte mabyin lawnglam ahkying aten gaiwang ni hpe “hpungtang hpaji hparat ladat” (research methodology) ni hte, maram dinglik (analysis) mahtai shawq dat yu gaq.

Htingbai Naw Awn ka bang tawn ai htaq “Gam Masat: Miwa hkawhkam Shi Huang Te a prat hta Wunpawng amyu nkau mi Tibet Mung kata e dushang shanu nga sai lam labau kaw mu lu nga ai. Dai ten hta Tibet Mung na hkawhkam wag aw ‘Sawng Tsen Gam Bu’ ngu ai wa rai nga ai. Tibet Mung kaw nga ai ten e, Wunpawng uhpawng hta myit jasat myan hpaji grai madang dep ai dinghku langai mi lawm nga ai. Shan a mying gaw ‘Shapawng Yawng Mangdang’ ngu ai la sha hte ‘Jan Ma Majan’ ngu ai num shay an rai nga ma ai. Dai yan gaw dinghku de hpang ai nau n na yang shading sha alat langai mi lu masai. Dai ma hpe shan kanu yan kawa grai tsawra ai majaw hkawhkam hkawseng mying la shamying ma ai. Dai ten na Tibet hkawhkam wa a mying gaw ‘Sawng Tsen Gam Bu’ (A.D 617-650) rai nga ai hte maren, shanyan a kasha na mying hpe ‘Gam’ ngu shingteng la ma ai. Dai ten kaw nna Wunpawngsha ni hta shawng nnan shaprat ai la kasha hpe ‘Gam’ ngu shamying ai masat paw pru wa ai rai” ngu nna mulu nga ai.40

Htingbai Naw Awn nah “Gam” masat shamying pruwa ai htaq, la-kap nna Jinhpaw ginru ginsa hpe loi shingdaw dinglik gamung dupbang dat nngai. Shi tsun tawn ai hku nga yang, Tibet Mungh kawq, Kachin nkau ni nga ai aten htaq, “Shapawng Yawng Mangdang” ngu ai lasha hte “Jan Ma Majan” ngu ai numsha yan dinghku gawde ai hpang, shadangsha alat la-ngai shaprat ma ai. Dai shadangsha hpe, dai ten nah Tibet hkawhkam “Sawng Tsen Gam Bu”14 aq mying na lapran jahtum nsen “gam” hpe kawan malawk lah nhtawm, “Gam” masat amying shingteng jawq ai kawq nna Kachin ni, dai mabyin lawnglam nah shamying lang hkratwa ai re, ngu nna madiq tsun tawn nga ai. Htingbai Naw Awn tsun ai hku nga yang, Kachin ginru ginsa gaw, Tibet hkawhkam “Shrong-btsan-sgam-

40 Marip Htingbai Naw Awn, “Wunpawng Labau Ginshi”, P-44,45. (date, place, and publisher unwritten).

41 “Sawng Tsen Gam Bu” na mying nsen mahkuh (mahkuu) madang hpe tsun shaga aga hpaji ninghkring (linguist) G.A. Grierson wag aw “Shrong-btsan-sgam-po” ngu nna nsen shaprawq tawn nga ai. See G.A. Grierson, “Linguistic Survey of India”, Vol.3, Part-1, New delhi, 1967 (reprinting of 1909).

po” ahkying aten htaq she, Tibetan42 lamuga kawq du hkring na satlawat, rai nga u ai. Htingbai Naw Awn sawk shaprawq tsun tawn ai “ginru ginsa mahtai” hte, “London school of Economics and political science” (University of Londion) nah Dr. Edmund R. Leach (Ph.D ni Anhthropology) wa, “Miwa sakse sakgam” ni hte madiq shingdaw alai shaprawq tawn ai “ginru ginsa mahtai” (Proro-Kachin gaw, dainih nah Kachin lamuga jarit mayan htaq, 4th century AD hkan e dushang nga sai, ngu ai)43 ni hpe, hpaji ningmu mahkrun hku shingdaw joishen datyu yang, E.R.Leach nah ningmu gaw grau hkapla ging ai mahtai wabyin nga ai. Bi nna Jinghpaw ginru ginsa gaw “Tibet bumpa shagawng” (Tibet Plateau) de n du shangbang shi ai aten kawq nna “Gam” masat amying shingteng hpe lang hkratwa sai, ngu ai gaw “anthropology hte linguistics” hpaji masalam hku nna chyelu nga ai. Htimbai Naw Awn aq Tibet hte, Jinghpaw ni “Gam” masat hkriqdun nga hkratwa ai rai yang, Kachin ni kawq Buddhism makam masham lawm hkratwa

42 The Tubo people were the ancestors of the Tibetan people. They appeared on the “Tibet plateau” at a very early period. They were farmers and thherders. In the early seventh century, “Shrong Btsan Sgam Po” united the various Tubo tribes, and made Luoxie (today’s Lhasa), the capital of the Tubo kingdom. He admired the culture of the Tang Dynasty, and was eager to form an alliance with that powerful empire. In 641AD, Emperor Taizong sent princess Wencheng to him as his birde. The Tubo people used to liver in tents, It is said that a gorgeous palace was built specially for her, which was the predecessor of today’s Potala Palace.

43 (i). E.R. Leach, “The Frontiers of Burma”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1960, P.49-68; (ii). G. H. Luce, “Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma”, Volume-I, 1985, P.47 (Henceforth : G.H. Luce, 1985); And also see for comparative studies : # Sao Saimong Mangrai, “The Shan State and The British Annexation”, 1965, P.29; # M. Martin, “The Noras and The Khamtis” from “History, Topography, Antiguities of Eastern India”, 1838, Vol. iii; # U. N. Gohain, “The Khamtis and other Buddhist Tribes in Assam” from “A Short Notes On The Tai”, 1950; # J. George Scott, “Gazetteer of Upper Burma And The Shan States”, Part.ii, Volume-ii, P.333-334.

ra nga ai. Tibet e, Buddhism sasana hpe kaba hkra, shabyin sha-ngang sharawt dat shangun ai wag aw, “Shrong-btsan-sgam-po” rai nga ai. Htingbai Naw Awn matut tsun tawn ai lawnglam langai gaw – “Miwa hkawhkam ‘Shi Huang Te’ a prat hta Wunpawng amyu nkau mi Tibet hkawhkam ‘Sawng Tsen Gam Bu’ na Tibet Mung kata e dushang shanu nga sai lam”, rai nga lu ai. Ndai htaq, shit sun ai “Sawng Tsen Gam Bu” hkawhkam aten gaw ‘AD 617-650’ rai nhtawm, “Shi Huang Te”44 gaw ‘BC 259-210’ rai shajang hkat nga ma ai. Htingbai Naw Awn gaw, hkawhkam ni nah

44“Shi Huang Te” ngu ai gaw “Qin Shihuang” rai nga ai. Bai, “Qin Shihuang” ngu ai lachyum gaw, ‘Qin hkawhkam’ (Qin King) ngu ai re. “Qin Dynasty” (Qin hkawseng matut prat) aq “Hkawseng Hkawhkam” (Emperor of the Qin Dynasty) ngu ai mung, rai nga ma ai. ‘Shi Huang Te’ (Shi Huang Ti or Di) na ‘Huang Te’ (Huang Ti, Huang Di) gaw Miwa aga lachyum hku nna ‘hkawhkam’ (King) hpe, tsun ai re. Jinghpaw ni gaw, ‘Di’ mung ngu ma ai. Daimajaw, “Shi Huang Di”, ‘Wang Di wa, na nep’ ngu ai gamung ni mung, tsun hkratwa ga ai. “Shi Huang Di” na mying majing gaw, “Ying Zheng” ngu nga ai. “Di, Ti, Wangti, Wangdi, Huangti, Huangdi” gaw hkawhkam hpe tsun ai, rai nga ma ai. Kachin ni tsun ai “hkawhkam” ngu ai amying gahkum gaw, Mongol nsen gahkum “Khan” (monarch, hkawhkam) nah lah lang hkratwa ai, rai nga ai. “Maduq, Du” (lord, chieftain) ngu ai nsen gahkum gaw, Jinghpaw ni Maliq Hkuh Majoi lamuga de kabye shangbang hkratwa ai shaloi, grau nna langwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Tsun ga nga yang, “Kachin gumchying gumsa” (feudalism) lamuga maduq, mayam maduq hkrang langwa ai shaloi, tsun pruwa ai nsen gahkum rai nga ai. “Maduq” ngu ai mung, Mongol nsen gahkum “Dadu” hte, ginrawn hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. “Dadu” lachyum mung, hkawhkam mungh daju (capital, napyidaw) ngu ai, rai nga ma ai. Grau nna uphkang lawnglam e “hkaw, hkam, hkawhkam, …” ni mung, Mongol gasi ni hte, ginrawn nga ai. Dainih nah Miwa “Beijing” mare dajuq hpe, Mongol hkawhkam prat (1246 AD) htaq, “Zhangdu” ngu hkratwa ma ai. Tsun ga nga yang, lamuga, mayam maduq “maduq wa” (possessor), maduq ai wa = “duwa” (landlord, [email protected]) ngu ai, raiwa nga ai. 20th century AD prat htaq, Kachin e “duwa masalam” (duwa trend) hpe lamuga n maduq tim, “tsi maduq (tsidu), hpyen maduq (Hpyendu, maduq kaba), sut maduq (sutdu), hpaji maduq (hpajidu), pyadadu… ngu nna lachyum lagra lang matwa ai hpe mulu nga ai. “Duwa, du, du kaba” ngu ai gasi gahkaw hpe Kachin military terms hku, htaqlang matwa ai gaw, British colony prat aten e, rai nga ai. Ndai amying ningsang (title) hpe, shagrau sha-ar jawqya ai ninghkan, Kachin ni British hpyenla grai sharawng sharaq shang galaw laiwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Lachyum gaw, maduq magam ahkaw ahkang hpe, rusai hkan ai hku n re sha, yawng hpe hpawq datya ai hkrang mung, wa-byin nga ai, re. Tsun ga nga yang, Kachin traditional concept hpe British ni, shanhte aq akyu ara kawq e, akyu jashawn jailing bang lah ai British colony lailadat, rai nga ai. Ndai gaw shaning galu kahtap shayan shalawq matwa jang, shinggyim wuhpawng htaq, byinbyin re ai hkrang satlawat mung, rai nga ai.

ahkying aten ni hpe n ka bang tawn ai majaw, shit sun shayan matwa ai “Kachin ginru ginsa” (Kachin Migration) hpe, hkrang sumla matut dat na nhtiq nhtang zawn, yak mat nga ai.

“Qin hkawhkam ni na hkawseng prat” (Qin Dynasty) shawngdaw kawq nna gaw Miwa mungdan ting kasat gala laja lana shayan nga shajang hkat ma ai. Kasat gala hkat shajang ai ni gaw “Qin, Han, Zha0, Wei, Chu, Yan, the Qi” ni, rai shajang nga ma ai. Daimajaw, dai aten ni hpe Miwa ahtik labau htaq, “Majan Ahkying Aten Mungh Prat” (Warring  States Period) ngu nna, shaning ‘254’ (BC 475-221) galu nga matwa ai. BC 230, Qin Shihuang

Hkawhkam gaw, dainih nah Miwa gaiwang kata nga amyu bawsang hkawhkam ni yawng hpe, langai hpang langai kasat zingtek kau nhtawm, BC 221 ning e, Miwa mungdan ting hpe langai hku sha, kahkin gumdin tawn kau datlu nga ai.

Ndai “Qin Shihuang” hkawhkam nah kasat gala dagup magawn ahkut matwa ai hpyen ninggun hpungtang kashaw nsen hte “labaushang lagaw-lata hkang” (historical footprints) ni hpe dainih du hkra, mulu nga ai.45 Qin dynasty prat htaq, dingdung de na “Xiongnu” (Hun) buhtawt gayin nga hkawm ai (nomads) masha ni, dingdaq de shanghtim kasat bangwa wa re majaw, shawngdaw hkan nna galaw ngam tawn ai “lamuga bunghku shakum” (The Great wall) hpe bai galaw shagreng dat ma ai. Tsun ga nga yang, Miwa mungh kata de ginru ginsa hkratbang ai tingrawq lamlamaw kaba langai gaw, “Xiongnu-Mongolia” bumpa shara de nna rai nga ma ai. Ndai bumpa shara de nna sinprawq, dingdaq, dingdaq-sinnaq magah ni de ginru ginsa hkratbang chyambra matwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Bai, Miwa mungh kata de ginru ginsa shangbang ai lamlamaw langai gaw, Miwa sinnaq jahtum “Xinjiang” jut magah de

45 In 1974, east of the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang ni Lintong, between Mount Li and Wei River, near Xi’an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, three pits filled with row after row of life-sized clay figures of warriors and horse were discovered. The largest pit contains more than 6,000 such figures in formations which combine cavalry, chariots and infantry archers. This ‘terracotta army’ which guards the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang has been reflecting the mighty military power of Qin dynasty ni China. The tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang also known as the ‘Eighth Wonder of the World’ was included in the World Cultural Heritage list by UNESCO in 1987. Due to the mighty military power of Emperor Qin Shihuang, some proto Tibeto-burma speaking tribes’ migration diverged to the southwest direction way beyond the control of Qin Dynasty. See the sketch map of Qin dynasty territory and its unearthed grave photo.

nna mung, lahtaq magah de nna rusai myuhpan ni (ginru ginsa shangbang nga ma ai. Miwa mungh aq sinnaq hte dingdung hku nna ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai ni gaw, Turkish-Mongolian aga tsun shaga ai wuhpung wuhpang ginru ginsa ni hkrai mung, rai nga ma ai. Miwa aq dingdaq-sinnaq de nna ginru ginsa lungshang pruwa ai lawnglam mabyin ni hpe n muhkrup nga ai. Deng ninghkan, Miwa e, Indo-European wuhpung hpanshan hpe ginru ginsa n mu ai, rai nga ai. Miwa mungh sinprawq jut magah de mung ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai htaq, grau nna ginru ginsa hkratpru matwa ai hpe sha, mulu nga ai. Dai hpanshan ni kawq, Japanese, Korean ni mung, lawm nga ma ai.

Qin Shi Huang (Qin Shihuang) hkawhkam aten htaq, Miwa dingdaq de nga ai “Yue” amyu masha ni mung Qin Dynasty npuq de, dingyawm lawm matwa ma ai. Proto-Kachin ginru ginsa mung, ndai kasat gala mabyin lawnglam ni htaq ganawng hkratwa ai, rai nga ma ai. Tsun ga nga yang, “Tibet bumpa shagawng na dingdung-sinprawq” (northeast of Tibet plateau) magah de ginru ginsa shanang shangbang hkratwa ai.46 India Arunachal Pradesh de ginru ginsa shangbang hkratwa ai Lisu (Lisaw, Yawyin) ni gaw “Rima-Minzong-Hoyuliang-Teju-Sadiya” ginru ginsa hkrunlam hku laishang wa ai ni, n rai nga ma ai. Maliq Hkuh Majoi magah de nna bai lahkam shang hkratwa ai ni, rai nga ma ai. Teibeto-burma aga tsun shaga ai amyu hpanshan hpung ni Assam-Brahmaputtra palayang de yanshang bangwa ai hte, shawng shawng yang e, dushang hkring nga shanu taw nga sai “Mon-Khmer” aga tsun shaga hpanshan hpung nah “Khasi” amyu ni hpe mung, Meghalia bum mayan de kanawng htuh shalung kau nga ma ai.47 Meghalia bum mayan ni gaw India sinprawq-dingdung kawq nga ai Manipur kadit palayang ni hte mung, bai nna Mizo bumlang ni hte mung matut ngahkat ai lamuga bum ni, rai nga ai. “Shillong” gaw India Mon-Khmer Khasi ni hkrai, nsan rai wa-majawq ngapra mat ai dajuq shara, rai nga ai.

46 L. Gogoi, “The Tai Khamtis of North East India”, 1990, New Delhi, P-124. And also see L. W. Shakespear, “History of Upper Assam, Upper Burma”, 1904, London.

47 B.D. Maran, 2010, P-12,13.

 

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